Part 3 - Choosing Your Location

A guide to navigating the zoning, bylaws, codes & regulations affecting tiny houses in Los Angeles

By Teresa Baker
LATCH Collective LLC
SEPTEMBER 10 2016

Author’s note: This article is a work in progress, this being the first draft, and part 3 out of a developing series. My intent is that the Tiny House community in Los Angeles might help me write a more thorough resource by sharing their knowledge and ideas. I also hope to team up with legal assistance to check my understanding of these regulations, and to look for further options potentially missing. My goal is to produce a helpful, heavily researched guide to legally living tiny in Los Angeles that can be used by anyone in the community and further improved on by professionals. Please use the feedback form at the end of this post to submit improvements.

(See also Part 1 - Introduction, and Part 2 - Defining Your Structure)

 
 

CHOOSING A LOCATION

     Maybe you have noticed that on some of the network television shows featuring tiny houses, the beautiful finished project is parked in a lovely, secluded field… in the middle of nowhere. Many times, it is easier to get away with tiny living without nearby neighbors complaining, but isolated, secluded, and rural are not descriptors of most areas in LA County. Finding a legal location for a tiny home in highly urbanized Los Angeles is a challenge, but it is not impossible! Once a structure is identified, it becomes possible to understand what land use regulations apply to that type of structure.

     There are multiple layers of imposed regulations regarding what activity can take place (including what type of dwelling can be built or occupied) on a parcel of land. These are known as zoning and include the State of California Planning and Zoning Law, the Los Angeles County Zoning Ordinance, and each of the County’s 88 municipalities which have their own zoning ordinances. [1] There are also micro-level land use regulations such as plats (individual parcel/ specific location zoning) and House Owner Association laws. Unincorporated areas have the perk of not having to follow the extra municipal layer of zoning. Some municipal zoning is more accepting of tiny houses than others. Because each municipality’s zoning is unique, explaining every option for legally locating a tiny house across all municipalities within Los Angeles County is beyond the scope of this article. However, those more commonly available options will be discussed. Options for legally locating a tiny house in LA include special occupancy parks, manufactured housing communities, backyards, residential lots, planned communities, and the public realm.  

   1.  Special Occupancy Park

A Special Occupancy Park is an inclusive term used by the State for recreational vehicle parks and campgrounds. [2]  They are for occupying RVs, tents, and camping cabins, but do not allow manufactured houses or mobile homes (except for use by the management).[3] They are to be used for non-permanent structures, and any permanent building including garages or storage is not allowed within a space.[4]  

i.  RV Park

     The State explains a Recreational Vehicle Park as an area or tract of land, or designated section within a mobile home park, where two or more lots are rented or leased to accommodate users of recreational vehicles or camping cabins.[5] There are also temporary RV parks, which are established for temporary use and are not to exceed 11 consecutive days of use, that are removed after this time.[6] In temporary RV parks, camping cabins are not permitted.[7]Many RV parks only allow RVIA certified structures. For these parks, an RVIA decal will make it easier to be accepted by RV parks, which is obtained only when a structure is built by a certified manufacturer who is an RVIA member.*[8] While it is required by the State to have decal of approval to occupy a lot in RV parks, units that do not have the bear a label, insignia, or insignia of approval are allowed to occupy the park if the owner can provide “reasonable proof of compliance” with ANSI standards.[9]&[10] There may be some RV parks that are not following this State protocol, allowing their lots to be occupied by houses not following these standards, but one should be aware of the possibility of action being taken against the park.

     Recreational Vehicle Parks are intended for a short term use, but tenants can fall under the regulations of the California Mobile home Residency Law (CAMRL) if they occupy a lot in a park for more than nine straight months, as this will consider them a resident of the park.[11] The same laws apply to a resident of an RV Park that apply to those occupying their house in a Manufactured Housing Community.[12] Reaching this nine month mark will prove challenging in most RV parks as LA County Planning specifies the maximum duration of occupancy by any one occupant or party shall be limited to 90 consecutive days in any six-month period.[13]

     A possibility for achieving dreams of living in a tiny house community could exist in opening up an RV park catered to tiny houses. However, there are some difficulties with opening a new RV park in LA. For one, they are permitted in limited areas. An RV park may be permitted only in conjunction with a principal use permitted in Zone O-S.[14] There may also be a lack of political will to open up more RV parks within LA, but this suggestion needs more investigation.  A Recreational Vehicle Park can beconverted to a subdivision, cooperative, condominium, or other form of resident ownership and still be considered an RV Park.[15] Read more about this type of land ownership under the coming “manufactured housing community” section, part ii.

ii.  Campground

     This option is perhaps the most obviously non-permanent location for a tiny house, as campgrounds almost always have a maximum stay. Each National Park and State Park has their own specified maximum length of stay, and are supposed to limit one party’s occupancy of that park to 30 days out of the year, though there are park users claiming this is rarely enforced. All private campgrounds are also supposed to keep a log book and limit the occupancy by a party to 30 days annually.[16] There may be limitations on what RVs are allowed - some State parks limit the length of an RV to as low as 15 feet.[17] Because camping parks are less strict with requirements for proof of ANSI standards or RVIA certification, they work well for houses not to code. They also function well for those frequently travelling, or for those needing a place for their house while finding a more long-term location.

2.  Manufactured Housing Community (Mobilehome Park)

     A Mobilehome Park or Manufactured Housing Community*[18] is a tract of land divided into two or more lots for the habitation of manufactured houses, mobile homes, or recreational vehicles.  Some are designated senior parks while others are for all ages.[19] The California Department of Housing and Community Development (HCD) is responsible for inspecting and issuing permits for mobilehome parks and the manufactured houses within them, and the California Mobilehome Residency Law specifies the responsibilities of the park owner and tenant.

     There are limitations on what type of dwelling can occupy a mobilehome park. RVs are allowed only in specific, separated sections of mobilehome parks/manufactured housing communities developed in 1982 and after.[20] If there are no local permit or zoning restrictions, both RVs and mobile homes may occupy mobilehome park spaces, but mobile homes may not occupy RV spaces.[21] Some manufactured housing communities require that units be at least 30 feet long. It is possible that a manager of a park might overlook the standards and requirements and allow a tiny house that is not technically a manufactured house, but one should dig deeper to find the reason why this is allowed, and be aware of the possibility of action being taken against the park. LA County zoning states that a mobilehome park shall have no conventionally constructed or stud-framed residences (other than caretaker or manager housing), so this may factor into why some parks are not allowing units looking like tiny houses.[22]

     Mobile homes, manufactured houses, commercial coaches, and commercial modulars can be installed on a foundation within a park and also be subsequently removed, but any type of RV may not be installed on any permanent foundation.[23] Units installed on code-approved foundations*[24] are no longer subject to registration as a mobile home by the Department of Housing and Community Development (HCD). Once a unit is installed, it becomes a fixture or improvement to the property which it is attached and can receive a Certificate of Occupancy, after which it is considered real property and is subject to local property taxes.[25] Titles to the unit are transferred through a deed, and if bought and re-installed somewhere else, the title needs to be surrendered by the seller. [26]

     The City of Los Angeles has 57 mobilehome parks with approximately 6,500 spaces, with a majority of the parks concentrated in the San Fernando Valley and San Pedro areas.[27] While opening a mobilehome park and catering it to serve tiny houses seems an appealing idea and a possible avenue to creating an intentional tiny house community, this might prove challenging. Few new parks have been built in the last 30 years, restricted by land and improvement costs that make building new communities unfeasible.[28] The trend instead seems to be shifting instead to parks being bought out - over 400 mobile home parks in California have closed in the last 20 years.[29]

 There are a few types of mobilehome parks/manufactured housing communities:

i.  Rental & Land Lease Parks

One way mobilehome parks function is by renting or leasing lots. The majority of parks in Southern California are owned by private investors running the park as a for-profit business. The park owners provides renters a site, utilities, amenities and other services to the owners of the houses. All parks are required to offer tenants a 12-month lease.[30] There is no rent control for mobilehome parks in Los Angeles County.

ii.  Converted Mobilehome Park

Another way mobilehome parks can function is by converting rental or leased lots into lots under a special form ownership.

     a)  Cooperative-style Communities

     A cooperative, a limited equity housing cooperative and a corporate ownership all function very similarly, but differ in their processing requirements. In this model of group land ownership, residents do not own their own land directly, but instead are the co-owners and operators of the corporation that owns the entire park. By controlling the corporation, the residents control the park. Each resident’s share or membership is their ownership, and their share or membership can be bought or sold.

     b)  Subdivided with Condominium Overlay

     A mobilehome park can also be converted into single lot subdivisions with a condominium overlay. In this model, the land is actually a single lot for legal title purposes, but a condominium plan is recorded to delineate the individual lots within the subdivision. Residents who purchase a lot are purchasing a manufactured house condominium “airspace” – the portion of the land from where the house sits up to a height of 40 feet, while the area beneath the unit is owned by the homeowners association so that the utilities that run under each lot can be commonly maintained. [32] A buyer receives a deed granting fee simple title to the condominium unit and a fractional interest in the entire park as well as membership in the homeowners association.

3.  Backyard Parking

     Locating a tiny house in the yard of another primary dwelling is an efficient way to increase the housing supply within a neighborhood without changing its character. Occupying a tiny house in the backyard of an existing house could be considered camping, or it could be considered dwelling. If your THOW sits in a yard unoccupied or used for storage, it is most likely legally allowed to be there, as long as it is in the back and not between the road and any building.[33] One might be able to camp in their home in a backyard, but there are limits and restrictions to camping on private land, or any land, outside of permitted campgrounds at the municipal and County level. To be allowed to dwell in (permanently inhabit) a tiny house in a backyard, it may possible to legally do so if the unit can be considered a Second Dwelling Unit (SDU).  

     Certain yards allow an SDU in addition to a larger, existing house. The State of California has passed second-unit legislation which essentially requires local governments to consider secondary unit applications as a regulated process, instead of on a case-by-case basis.[34] California’s laws specifically discourage restrictive regulations: “Any second-unit ordinances adopted by local agencies have the effect of providing for the creation of second units and that provisions in these ordinances….are not so arbitrary, excessive or burdensome so as to unreasonably restrict the homeowners to create second units in zones in which they are authorized.”[35] The County of LA has passed a second-unit ordinance allowing secondary units so long as they find the lot appropriate.[36].Some cities within LA County have their own second unit ordinances which either match or add to the minimum requirements set by the County and the State. The City of Los Angeles has recently revised its ordinance to comply with the State’s and are providing a way to legalize existing non-compliant backyard units.[37]

     These changes to more easily allow second dwelling units offer great opportunities, but for LA County, backyard parking as a second dwelling unit is currently only available for tiny houses on a permanent foundation, and are dependent on the municipality, zoning restrictions include minimum floor area, setbacks, and total lot coverage. The County of LA has minimum standards, but a local municipality can create more restrictive standards if it chooses. As per the County, SDU standards include (but are not limited to)….

  • Minimum floor area = 200 square feet
  • Maximum floor area =  640 square feet
  • Lot to be located in land zoned as agricultural or residential (RA, RE, RS, Rw, RMP, and RW1 zones).
  • In urban areas, minimum lot size = 5000 net square feet
  • Maximum lot coverage =  40% of the net lot area
  • Setback requirements for front yard = 20 feet, side yard = 5 feet, rear yard = 15 feet (May be modified by Yard Modification, instead of Variance.)
  • 30 feet alley dedication.
  • Parking space requirement
  • Connection to utilities[38]

     The area of a yard that an SDU occupies is not allowed to be carved out and sold as a separate lot.[39] Once a house is attached to a permanent foundation (currently required for SDUs), it is considered an addition to that property, and real property. This means that locating in a backyard could be complicated if the owner of the SDU is not the owner of the property. There are major costs associated with connecting a second unit to utilities, and the benefits of that infrastructure would stay with the owner of the property if the second unit was moved and relocated. The tiny house dweller could simply rent a tiny house from the property owner. Alternatively, the tiny house dweller could have a strong a relationship with the property owner and work out a trusted agreement outlining their rights regarding the tiny house. Another solution could be for the tiny house dweller to buy the property, build a tiny house as an SDU, and rent out the main dwelling unit. This comes with the debt of being a homeowner, but could work well for those who are already home owners with purchasing power, desiring to downsize their house.

4.  Master Planned/Zoned Intentional Tiny House Community

     The idea of locating a tiny house among other tiny houses and having like-minded tiny house enthusiasts as neighbors is appealing to many. Currently, there are no up-and-running intentional tiny house communities in Los Angeles County. Looking to other parts of California, Ojai is considering a development proposal for a tiny house village for affordable housing.[40] Habitats of San Diego is a master planned intentional tiny house community set to open in September 2016, and Lemon Cove Village is another located in Central California near Sequoia National Park which claims to be now open.[41]

     The American Planning Association suggests that there are at least three ways in which a tiny house community could be created, each modeled on an existing form of land-use approval. [42]  Deciding which form to use is a question of whether or not the occupants desire the ability to sell the house and the piece of land it occupies to someone else in the future.[43] Each option would most likely require working with an engineer, architect, and local planners in order to have a development proposal for a tiny house village considered.

i.  “One-Off” Allowing Substandard Housing

     There are some cases, like with homeless villages in Eugene, Oregon and in Washington State, where a municipality substantially waives requirements on housing standards because the tiny house would be better housing than what they currently have - no housing. This isn’t practical for market-rate housing, and only allowed in specific cases, like for those populations in dire need of housing, and is usually a temporary agreement. 

ii.  Tailored Zoning and Subdivision of Land

     For tiny house dwellers that want to own their land in fee-simple title while still being a part of a tiny house community, a developer could work with the city to subdivide lots and create tailored zoning. Subdivided lots need to meet minimum size & dimension requirements, which are likely bigger than what tiny house communities need or desire. For example, the R1 minimum lot size for the City of Los Angeles is 5000 feet. The local government would need to create a zone district allowing for smaller sizes for subdivided lots. If a community plans for narrow roads or other aspects of the common space that differ from normal subdivisions, a local government would likely not accept the infrastructure for public maintenance and would only agree to allow the development if house owners agree to maintain the common spaces. This entails the creation of a house owners association for the care of common spaces.

iii.  Planned Unit Development

     The task of creating a new zoning district with new subdivision regulations might be unrealistic in some municipalities. If a community expects or only wants to focus on achieving one tiny house community for the time being, a Planned Unit Development (PUD) could be catered to a specific developer. This would still allow tiny house dwellers to own their land in fee-simple title while being a part of a tiny house community. These PUDs could be relatively easy to develop, as long as there is political will to do so. The APA recommends that a PUD for a tiny house community be drafted assuming that conditions will change in the future, and to avoid locking in an overly specific development plan.[44] Many PUDs reflect a very specific picture which may serve the immediate inhabitants but not the needs of subsequent people as PUDs are hard to amend over time.

iv.  A Condominium or Co-housing Development

     Another type of development exists if the occupants of the community do not need the right to sell their individual lots to others in the future.  As a condominium or co-housing development, the land would remain un-subdivided. Instead, a development plan is approved, including a condominium overlay, allowing many tiny houses and perhaps support facilities like community buildings or shared parking areas, all within a single parcel of land. Instead of owning individual lots, residents are co-owners or co-members of the development and own shares in the lot as a whole.[45] When residents desire to sell their tiny house or their lot, they are actually sharing their rights and obligations that come with a shareholder or member package.

5.  Owner-occupied Lot in Residential Neighborhood

     Occupying a tiny house on one’s own lot seems the most desirable option to many, but will likely come with compromise and a pretty price tag. The purpose of zoning is to keep land uses compatible, while also functioning to maintain the character of a neighborhood. Residents have an interest in maintaining certain aspects of their neighborhood because they want to protect their property values. Locating a tiny house within a single-family residential neighborhood will face zoning that restricts houses from being too different (i.e. too much smaller) than the other houses. There is also the challenge of finding suitable, affordable land.

     Assuming the goal is to have a tiny house be considered as a permanent dwelling unit (and not a camping unit), the first challenge is determining how to get around the square footage (sometimes called floorspace) and width minimum requirements. Some options include…

i.  Getting a Variance

     As long as most State CBSC housing requirements are followed, one might have luck getting a variance or deviation from the municipal zoning code requirement that is prohibitive.[46] The Los Angeles County Department of Regional Planning allows for a modification to the minimum requirements through a site plan review application.[47] For the City of Los Angeles, applying for a variance involves explaining how a specific requirement presents practical difficulties, how your situation is special, why a variance is necessary and why it would not be detrimental to others, as well as public input from those within 500 feet of your lot.[48] For a permanent foundation tiny house not too much smaller than minimum square footage requirements, a variance could be a straightforward route to achieving a certificate of occupancy.

ii.  Allowance Under a Special Ordinance, Such As Small Lot Subdivision

     A municipality likely has a few special ordinances that allow exceptions to the regulations under certain circumstances. For example, the City of Los Angeles’ “Small Lot Subdivision” ordinance allows for smaller lots, lower square footage, and lower set-back requirements.[49] The intention of this ordinance is to support infill development, and make it easier for developers to construct creative new fee-simple homes in urban areas (lots zoned as multi-family or commercial).[50] A developer subdivides a parcel of land and submits a master plan to the planning department. Whereas most lots in the City of LA have a minimum lot size requirement of 5000 square feet, this ordinance allows lots to be as small as 600 square feet.[51] This ordinance might be able to help those desiring life in high density urban neighborhoods who would like a tiny home on a permanent foundation.  

      While this ordinance could potentially be a helpful tool in starting a tiny house community, there are some barriers. First, there are big costs associated with this type of development. Zones that allow Small Lot Development are more densely populated, more commercial, and better connected to transit, likely making them desirable locations for other developers. To buy a lot in this area which would then be subdivided, a developer would be putting up a bid high enough buy out other interested developers. The higher the land cost, the higher the housing unit would have to be to make a return. Another challenge is in the design restrictions. The City has created a set of design guidelines for small lot subdivisions, and development must substantially comply with these guidelines to receive project approval.  While many tiny homes showcase the uniqueness of their occupiers, building under this ordinance would most likely require compromises on exterior design in order to maintain design congruency between the homes. A proposal would need the professional help of engineers, architects, and/or planners, adding the cost of the development. Third, these types of projects have been under the fire of many neighborhood residents who do not favor increased density. The City is already working hard to win over the support of the public with each small lot project they allow. It may or may not work in the favor of any developer attempting to develop small lots to add a sometimes controversial “tiny home” angle to the project.

     The second challenge in getting a tiny home to be considered as a permanent dwelling on a single lot is having the homes foundation approved as an allowable foundation.[52] This is simple for tiny houses choosing to build on a standard permanent foundation. This is not so simple for THOWs, unless a municipality creates zoning for alternative allowable foundations. In California, RVs are not allowed to be permanently affixed to a foundation.[53] In LA County, only double-wide manufactured homes are allowed to be considered as single-family residences.[54]

     It’s possible not all have the goal of receiving approval to live in their tiny house as a permanent dwelling. Some may instead desire simply the permission to reside, or camp, in their non-permanent structure, even if temporarily.

i.  Dwelling During Construction

     A mobile home (manufactured home) may be used as a temporary residence for the owner and his family during the construction by such owner of a permanent residence, but only while a building permit for the construction of such residence is in full force and effect.[55]

ii.  Camping

     In order to be able to legally camp long term on your own land, the zoning regulation for that land must allow year round camping. Each municipality will have restrictions on the maximum consecutive days camping is allowed, with some not allowing any camping on private lands. For those desiring to locate their tiny home on their own land (either as a permanent dwelling or as a temporary place to reside) it is crucial to understand local zoning and other restrictions for that parcel of land. Some land has restrictions against what portions of the land can be developed, while others have moratoriums on building due to California’s water scarcity.

6.  Leased Land

     It is possible to own your house and park it on leased land. The zoning challenges will be the same as those faced when locating a tiny home on land you own, with the additional challenges of finding appropriate land for lease. Joshua and Shelley from “Tiny House Basics” offer suggestions for how to passively find land, using mobile apps like NextDoor and Craigslist  to create an ad, post it, and wait, hoping for the best.[56]They also offer suggestions for a more active approach:

     “We would go to neighborhoods in our local community… and start talking to the neighbors and introducing ourselves and explaining to them what we were looking for and what a tiny house even is… we designed a postcard we could leave with people… it has a picture of us, a picture of a tiny house that we like and a little story about us. On the opposite side we printed a link to our website TinyHouseBasics.com and a list of skills we can offer in addition to rent. We really tried to put ourselves in our neighbors’ shoes and think about what would make us appealing to have as tenants on their property.”[57] 

     Locating on leased land could work for those wanting their own lot, but not wanting to rely on a loan to buy their own land. Drawbacks to locating on leased land include the yearly renewal of a lease and the ability of the landowner to cancel instead of renew, and that rent will rise over time.

7.  Residential Lot on Rural Unincorporated Land

     While not bountiful in rural lands, LA County does have some land that it considers rural, and within rural zones, there is the option to build a “Limited Density Owner-Built Rural Dwellings.” A limited density, rural dwelling is a structure consisting of one or more habitable rooms intended or designed to be occupied by one family with facilities for living and sleeping.[58] The requirements for room dimensions that usually apply to permanent dwellings do not apply to these owner-built dwellings.[59] The County determines what areas are zoned as rural by evaluating unincorporated land by factors including geographical or topographical conditions, population densities, and availability of utilities or services, such as areas of forestry, agriculture, grazing, recreation, or conservation.[60]

8.  Public Realm – Neighborhood Street or Parking Lot

     Another option, though non-permanent, would be to locate a tiny home in the public realm – places like a neighborhood street or a public parking lot. This is a very real option for many of LA’s homeless population. The right to sleep in a parked vehicle in the public sphere has been a hot topic of debate in Los Angeles. In 1983, the City created an ordinance banning people from living in their parked mobile structures, but it was struck down by a federal appeals court in 2014.[61] After this, there was an attempt to introduce legislation (SB 876 - The Right to Rest) that would prevent Los Angeles and other cities from enforcing laws against camping on sidewalks, in parks and in vehicles parked on public streets. However, in March 2016, the Senate Housing and Transportation Committee voted against The Right to Rest Bill.[62] The City of Los Angeles continues to attempt to create municipal codes against resting in public places, while at the same time others are trying to create opportunities for resting in public space, making this location option a grey area at the current time.


References  

[1] State of California’s Government Code SECTION 65000-65010 – Planning and zoning law; LA County’s Title 22 (Planning and Zoning) of the Los Angeles County Code

 [2] California Health & Safety Code §18862.43

 [3]  California Housing and Community Development. “Special Occupancy Parks” Chapter 2.2.  §2118 (b).  Updated 1 April 13.

 [4] HCD. “Special Occupancy Parks” Chapter 2.2.  §2118 (c). 

 [5] HSC. §18862.39.(a)

 [6] HSC §18862.47.  (a)

 [7] HCD. “Special Occupancy Parks” Chapter 2.2.  §2118 (i) (1).

 [8] Evergreen RV Park – 2135 N Oxnard Blvd., Oxnard, CA. Accepts tiny houses that are RVIA certified.

 [9] HSC §18027.3(f)(g)

 [10] ANSI Standard No. A119.2 Standard for Recreational vehicles;  or ANSI Standard A119.5 Park Model Recreational Vehicle Standard.

 [11] Senate of California Select Committee on Manufactured Home Communities. 2016. California Mobilehome Residency Law. P. 73.

 [12] California Southwestern Insurance Agency. “How Does The California Mobile Home Residency Law Effect Mobile Home Park Owners?” By Joshua Woods, 4 May 15. 

 [13] Los Angeles County.  22.140.490 (b)(2)

 [14] Los Angeles County. § 22.140.490.  

 [15] HSC 18862.39 (a).

 [16] HSC 18871.9 .

 [17] California Department of Parks and Recreation. “Maximum trailer and RV lengths.” Web page accessed September 10, 2016.

 *[18] Manufactured Housing Communities are often referred to as Mobile home Parks at the municipal, county and state level, though this in some way contradicts the State’s definition of Mobile homes (no units made after 1976 are to be called mobile home parks).

 [19] California Department of Housing and Community Development. “FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS California Mobilehome Park Residency Law (MRL).” Web page accessed 9 September 16. 

 [20] HCD. “FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS.” Web page accessed 9 September 16. 

 [21] HCD. “FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS.” Web page accessed 9 September 16. 

 [22] Los Angeles County. 22.140.370 Mobilehome Parks (I)(1)

 [23]  HSC 18871 , HSC 18551(a)

 [24] Foundations allowable pursuant to HSC sections 18551, 18551.1 and 18555.

 [25] California Housing and Community Development. “Requirements for manufactured homes, mobilehomes, and commercial modular installed on foundation systems, HCD MH 433 Forms.” By Kim Strange. Sacramento:  29 December 06. (Information Bulletin 2006-05). (MH, FBH, SHL, MP/SOP, RT, OL)-Revised.

 [26] California HCD. (Information Bulletin 2006-05).

 [27] City of Los Angeles Housing and Community Investment Department. “Mobile home Parks.”Web page accessed 22 Jul 16.

 [28] Manufactured Housing Educational Trust. “An Overview of History of Trailer Camps, Mobile Home Parks and Modern Manufactured Housing Communities in Southern California.”  Web page accessed 8 September 16.

 [29] Peninsula Press. “California’s affordable mobile home parks vanishing.” By Katie Kramon. 11 March 2015. 

 [30] Manufactured Housing Educational Trust. “An Overview of History of Trailer Camps, Mobile Home Parks and Modern Manufactured Housing Communities in Southern California.”  Web page accessed 8 September 16.

 [31] Los Angeles County. 22.140.370 Mobilehome Parks

 [32] The Loft in Firm. “FAQ Park Conversions.” Web page accessed 8 September 16.

 [33] Los Angeles County 22.20.025.

 [34] California Department of Housing and Community Development. “Second-Unit Legislation Effective January 1, 2003

 and July 1, 2003” By C. Creswell. Sacramento:  6 Aug 03. (MEMORANDUM FOR:  Planning Directors and Interested Parties). <http://www.hcd.ca.gov/hpd/hpd_memo_ab1866.pdf>.

 [35] California Legislature. §65852.150.

 [36] Los Angeles County Department of Regional Planning. “Second Unit Ordinance Checklist.” Web page accessed 20 August 2016.

 [37]City of Los Angeles Department of City Planning. Recommendation Report. CPC-2015-1245-CA. Los Angeles, CA: 12 May 16.

 [38] Los Angeles County Department of Regional Planning. “Second Unit Ordinance Checklist.” Web page accessed 20 August 2016.

 [39] American Planning Association.  “Tiny Houses.” Zoning Practices. November, 11 (2015): 5.

 [40] Tiny House Build. “Tiny houses on wheels legal in Ojai, California!” By Gabriella Morrison, 12 July 2016. 

 [41] Habitats. “Coming September 2016. Habitats ‘A Tiny House Community’ . “Web page accessed 8 September 16 ; LemonCove Village: A Tiny House Community. “A New Tiny House Community Now Open!“ Web page accessed 8 September 16.

 [42] APA. “Tiny Houses,” 6.

 [43] APA. “Tiny Houses,” 6.

 [44] APA. “Tiny Houses,” 6.

 [45] APA. “Tiny Houses,” 7.

 [46] See LAMC 12.28 for application for slight modification to reduce rear yard; See LAMC 12.27 for variance for increasing density to permit an additional unit where only one unit is allowed.

 [47] Los Angeles County Department of Regional Planning. “Site Plan Review Application.” Document accessed 22 August 2016.

 [48] City of Los Angeles. “Zone Variance.” LAMC 12.27.

 [49] HCD Title 25 §78 “Limited Density Owner-Built Dwellings – Definitions.” 5 June 08. ; Health and Safety Code §17958.2. 

 [50] Los Angeles Department of City Planning. “Small Lot Design Guidelines.” Los Angeles, CA: 2014, 4.

 [51] Los Angeles Department of City Planning. “Small Lot Design Guidelines.” Los Angeles, CA: 2014, 7.

 [52] Requirements for foundations for mobile homes outlined in HSC § 18551, §18551.1 and §18555. Options outlined in the _ include Pier Foundations, Transverse Foundation Walls and Longitudinal Foundation Walls the HUD Permanent Foundations Guide for Manufactured Housing (4930.3g) – Chapter 6 - Foundation Design.

 [53]HSC 18551(a)

 [54] subject to the definition of a residence in section 22.08.180 and meeting the required single-family residence development standards in section 22.20.105.20

 [55] Los Angeles County 22.140.380 (B)

 [56] Tiny House Basics. “How do you start finding land for your tiny house?” By Joshua and Shelley Engberg. Blog post not dated, accessed 1 September 2016.

 [57] Tiny House Basics. “How do you start finding land for your tiny house?” By Joshua and Shelley Engberg. Blog post not dated, accessed 1 September 2016.

 [58] California Residential Code (2010). 24.2 R301.1.1.1 “Alternative provisions for limited-density owner-built rural dwellings.”

 [59] CRC (2010). 24.2 R301.1.1.1 “Alternative provisions for limited-density owner-built rural dwellings.”

 [60] California State Law Regulations and Earthquake Protection Law. 25.1.1.1.8 §78. “Definitions.” Current as of 5 June 2008.

 [61] Desertrain v. City of L.A., 754 F.3d 1147. 1157 (9th Cir. 2014) ; University of California Berkley Law. “California’s New Vagrancy Laws.” February 2015; LAist. “Ban On Homeless People Living In Cars In L.A. Struck Down.” By Billy Gil. 19 June 14.

 [62] Street Spirit. “Right to Rest Campaign Rejected in Sacramento.” 29 March 2016.


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